|The research scope of the Laboratory of High-Intensity Ion Implantation is related to design of high-current ion accelerators, generators of metal plasma, ion sources based on vacuum-arc discharge, the development of a scientific basis of ion-beam and ion-plasma interactions with a surface and the formation of surface layers with nanostructured phases for directed changing in their physical-chemical and operational properties.|
One of the research fields of the laboratory is developing of high-current ion accelerators and studying of the impact of high power ion beams after their interaction with the surface of various materials. In this particular area the laboratory was working on a problem of improvement of coatings adhesion obtained from ablative plasma, and increasing penetration depth of the implanted elements into the surface layers of materials after the impact of pulsed high power ion beams. Along with this, we managed to obtain diamond-like and calcium-phosphate coatings.
Throughout the laboratory's history its team designed the sources of ion beams and plasma based on a pulse and DC vacuum arc discharge technology, which have now evolved into a source of repetitively pulsed beams of metal ions and plasma streams based on the DC vacuum-arc discharge Raduga-5. It allows to generate a continuous stream of metal plasma, free of microdroplet inclusions, with ion concentration up to 109 - 1011 ion/cm3 and form the ion beams of conductive materials with a pulse repetition rate up to 200 pulses per second, including composite ones, with an ion energy and current of up to 150 keV and 2 A, respectively, at the accelerating voltage pulse duration of up to 400 ?s.
Development and modification of ion beam sources were conducted simultaneously with the series of investigations aimed at modification of microstructure, element composition, and properties of various materials and coatings during high fluence implantation of metal ions. Throughout many years, the laboratory has been researching the process of structure formation in surface layers and modifying properties of structural materials, depending on the conditions of ion implantation. We studied ion beams impact on the pure metals (Fe, Ni, Mo, Cu) as well as alloys based on nickel, titanium and aluminum, structural and tool steels. In these research projects, we used a wide range of ions (from gas ions to ions of heavy elements).
The investigations related to the formation of modified near-surface layers containing intermetallic phases was especially important for the laboratory. These layers are characterized by high heat resistance. The laboratory carried a wide range of research of structural and phase compositions of surface layers of ion-doped metals (Al, Ni, Ti, Fe) under implantation of aluminum and titanium ions with the use of Raduga-5 ion beam source. We found out that under conditions of high intensity ion implantation the dopant penetration depth occurs multiply times greater than the ion projected range. As a result, we developed a high-performance method called high concentration ion implantation achieved due to the compensation of ion sputtering of a material surface by the formation of the sacrificial layers.
In addition, the laboratory designed a high-efficiency electromagnetic plasma louver-type filter for the plasma purification from macroparticles of vacuum-arc discharge based on a separation of charged and neutral component of the plasma flow. The device ensures 50 % efficiency of the charged plasma component transportation with a simultaneous 102 – 103 fold reduction in the macroparticle fraction.
The developments in the field of vacuum arc plasma filtering from microdroplet inclusions allowed to implement the methods of high-frequency short-pulse plasma-immersion implantation of metal ions and formation of adhesive-hard coatings on dielectric and conductive materials in an ion-assisted coating deposition mode.
Based on the designed ion sources and the plasma filters, we created a series of industrial implanters to implement combined technologies of ion-beam and ion-plasma processing of materials. We used the developed equipment and material processing methods to tests and upgrade technologies for improving the physical and mechanical properties of single-layer TiN, TiAlN, and the formation of multilayer nanostructured coatings of the TiAlN / TiN system with a thickness up to 10 ?m.
The laboratory developed and actively uses a plasma-immersion time-of-flight mass spectrometer for studying composition of the single- and multicomponent plasmas
We experimentally showed the deposition of macroparticle-free coatings with various functional purposes with a vacuum-arc discharge plasma due to the use of short-pulse high-frequency bias potentials. We succeeded to implement plasma-immersion implantation of titanium and aluminum ions in various materials under high-frequency short-pulse negative bias on the target, immersed in a previously unfiltered plasma of DC vacuum-arc discharge.
Currently, the laboratory is actively involved in the research in the field of extremely high fluence implantation of ions by high-intensity beams of ions of metals, gases, and semiconductors. The research team showed plasma-immersion formation of high-intensity repetitively pulsed beams of low-energy metal and gas ions with a current density in the range from 10 mA/cm2 to 1 А/сm2.
The laboratory areas of activity
- development of experimental equipment for the generation of high power pulsed ion beams.
- development and manufacture of technological equipment for implementation of methods of ion-beam and ion-plasma processing of materials.
- study of physical processes of formation and transportation of accelerated ions and plasma streams.
- study of processes of interaction of beams of charged particles and plasma with the surface of a solid body.
- development of methods and technologies of ion-beam and ion-plasma modification of material properties.